The Madurese (sometimes Madurace or Madhure) also known as Orang Madura and Suku Madura in Bahasa Indonesia are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. Common to most Madurese throughout the archipelago is the Islamic religion and the use of the Madurese language. The Madurese are a religious ethnicity, often affiliated with Nahdlatul Ulama, a moderate Indonesian Muslim organization. Pesantren has a pivotal role in Madurese life. While the Madurese have their roots on Madura off the northeastern coast of Java, the majority of Madurese do not now live on that island. The Madurese people have migrated out of Madura over several hundred years, mostly driven by poor agricultural resources in their home island. The majority have settled on Java, where an estimated six million Madurese live, especially in East Java where they form about half the population.