Jewish athletes (accessed 02/24/2015); Peter S. Horvitz and Joachim Horvitz. The a Big Book of Jewish Baseball, S.P.I Press, 2001, p. 246. This list of Jewish athletes in sports contains athletes who are Jewish and have attained outstanding achievements in sports. The criteria for inclusion in this list are: 1–3 places winners at major international tournaments; for team sports, winning in preliminary competitions of finals at major international tournaments, or playing for several seasons for clubs of major national leagues; or holders of past and current world records. Bold face denotes current competitor. The topic of Jewish participation in sports is discussed extensively in academic and popular literature, because of the perceived role of sports as a historical avenue for Jewish people to overcome obstacles toward their participation in secular society (especially in Europe and the United States).