Between 1895 and 1945, Taiwan (including the Pescadores) was a dependency of the Empire of Japan, after Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan and ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The short-lived Republic of Formosa resistance movement ended to no avail when it was suppressed by the Japanese troops. The fall of Tainan ended organized resistance to Japanese occupation, and inaugurated five decades of Japanese rule. The annexation and incorporation of Taiwan into the Japanese Empire can be viewed as first steps in implementing their “Southern Expansion Doctrine” of the late 19th century. As Taiwan was Japan’s first overseas colony, Japanese intentions were to turn the island into a showpiece “model colony”. As a result, much effort was made to improve the island’s economy, industry, public works and to change its culture for much of the necessities of the war machine of Japanese military aggression in the Asia-Pacific until the surrender of Japan. In 1945, after the defeat of the Empire of Japan in World War II, Taiwan was placed under the control of the Republic of China (ROC) with the signing of the Instrument of Surrender as a part of surrender ceremonies throughout the Asia-Pacific theater. The experience of Japanese rule, ROC rule, and the 228 Incident (1947) continues to affect issues such as Taiwan Retrocession Day, national identity, ethnic identity and the Taiwan independence movement.