Ghormeh sabzi (, ,) is a herb stew. It is a popular dish in Iran, and Azerbaijan and is often said to be the Iranian national dish. The history of ghormeh sabzi goes back at least 500 to 1,000 years. Ghormeh is a Turkish word and means stewed and Sabzi refers to herbs in Persian. The main ingredients are a mixture of sauteed herbs, consisting mainly of parsley, leeks or green onions, coriander, seasoned with the key spice of “shambalileh” (dried fenugreek) leaves. The herb mixture has many variations; any dark bitter green can be used (kale, mustard greens, turnip greens, etc., all work, although none are part of the original recipe). This mixture is cooked with kidney beans or black-eyed peas, yellow or red onions, black lime (pierced dried limu-Omani Persian lime), and turmeric-seasoned lamb or beef. In recent times, some people have replaced beans with potatoes. The dish is then served with polo (Persian rice) or over tahdig. Fundamental recipe (meat, vegetable, and bean types vary by region): Saute the red meat and onions until brown with turmeric and black pepper. Saute all greens separately until wilted. Add the above ingredients and also soaked beans (if you use canned beans you can add it in the final stage of the cooking) Cover with water and let it cook until the meat is cooked 80-90%. Then add lime-powder (or pierced, dried limo-Omani (they are quite hard—perforate thoroughly with a fork), and shambalileh, and salt to taste and continue cooking. The total cooking time should be at least 3 hours. However, pressure cooker can reduce this time, but the end result will not be as tasty. It is important to add enough limo-Omani and to simmer it long enough to cut the bitterness of the greens. Ground limo-Omani powder can be used. In the absence of dried limo-Omani, a large amount of lemon or lime juice can be used instead. Ghormeh sabzi should be tangy, citrusy, and savory. Inadequate simmering time will not allow the dried limo-Omani to soften and will leave it tasting like bitter boiled greens.