Joseph-Maurice Ravel (7 March 187528 December 1937) was a French composer known especially for his melodies, masterful orchestration, richly evocative harmonies and inventive instrumental textures and effects. Along with Claude Debussy, he was one of the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Much of his piano music, chamber music, vocal music and orchestral music is part of the standard concert repertoire. Ravel’s piano compositions, such as Jeux d’eau, Miroirs, Le tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuit, demand considerable virtuosity from the performer, and his mastery of orchestration is particularly evident in such works as Rapsodie espagnole, Daphnis et Chloé and his arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition. Ravel is best known for his orchestral work Boléro (1928), which he once described as “a piece for orchestra without music”. According to SACEM, as recently as 2009 Ravel has been on the list of the top 20 artists whose works have generated the most royalties abroad.