Granth Sahib

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi (Gurmukhi): ਗੁਰੂ ਗਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ, ) is the central religious text of Sikhism, considered by Sikhs to be the final, sovereign guru among the lineage of 11 Sikh Gurus of the religion. It is a voluminous text of 1430 Angs (pages), compiled and composed during the period of Sikh gurus from 1469 to 1708 and is a collection of hymns (Shabad) or Baani describing the qualities of God and the necessity for meditation on God’s nām (holy name). Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708), the tenth guru, after adding Guru Tegh Bahadur’s bani to the Adi Granth, affirmed the sacred text as his successor. The text remains the holy scripture of the Sikhs, regarded as the teachings of the Ten Gurus. The role of Guru Granth Sahib as a source or guide of prayer is pivotal in Sikh worship. The Adi Granth, the first rendition, was first compiled by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjun (1563–1606), from hymns of the first five Sikh gurus and 15 other great saints, or bhagats, including some from both Hindu and Muslim faiths. Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh guru, added all 115 of Guru Tegh Bahadur’s hymns to the Adi Granth, and this second rendition became known as Guru Granth Sahib. After the tenth Sikh guru died, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the work for distribution. It is written in the Gurmukhī script, in various dialects – including Lehndi Punjabi, Braj Bhasha, Khariboli, Sanskrit and Persian – often coalesced under the generic title of Sant Bhasha.Harnik Deol, Religion and Nationalism in India. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-415-20108-X, 9780415201087. Page 22. “Remarkably, neither is the Qur’an written in Urdu language, nor are the Hindu scriptures written in Hindi, whereas the compositions in the Sikh holy book, Adi Granth, are a melange of various dialects, often coalesced under the generic title of Sant Bhasha.”The making of Sikh scripture by Gurinder Singh Mann. Published by Oxford University Press US, 2001. ISBN 0-19-513024-3, ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9 Page 5. “The language of the hymns recorded in the Adi Granth has been called Sant Bhasha, a kind of lingua franca used by the medieval saint-poets of northern India. But the broad range of contributors to the text produced a complex mix of regional dialects.”Surindar Singh Kohli, History of Punjabi Literature. Page 48. National Book, 1993. ISBN 81-7116-141-3, ISBN 978-81-7116-141-6. “When we go through the hymns and compositions of the Guru written in Sant Bhasha (saint-language), it appears that some Indian saint of 16th century….”Introduction: Guru Granth Sahib. “Guru Granth Sahib Ji is written in Gurmukhi script. The language, which is most often Sant Bhasha, is very close to Punjabi. It is well understood all over northern and northwest India and is popular among the wandering holy men. Persian and some local dialects have also been used. Many hymns contain words of different languages and dialects, depending upon the mother tongue of the writer or the language of the region where they were composed.”Nirmal Dass, Songs of the Saints from the Adi Granth. SUNY Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7914-4683-2, ISBN 978-0-7914-4683-6. Page 13. “Any attempt at translating songs from the Adi Granth certainly involves working not with one language, but several, along with dialectical differences. The languages used by the saints range from Sanskrit; regional Prakrits; western, eastern and southern Apabhramsa; and Sahiskriti. More particularly, we find sant bhasha, Marathi, Old Hindi, central and Lehndi Panjabi, Sgettland Persian. There are also many dialects deployed, such as Purbi Marwari, Bangru, Dakhni, Malwai, and Awadhi.”Harjinder Singh, Sikhism. Guru Granth Sahib (GGS). “Guru Granth Sahib Ji also contains hymns which are written in a language known as Sahiskriti, as well as Sant Bhasha; it also contains many Persian and Sanskrit words throughout.”