Bosnian

Bosnian (Bosnian: ) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian used by Bosniaks. Bosnian is one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with Croatian and Serbian, and also an officially recognized minority or regional language in Serbia, Montenegro, and the Republic of Kosovo. Bosnian uses both Latin and Cyrillic alphabet. It is notable among the varieties of Serbo-Croatian for a number of Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Persian loanwords, largely due to the language’s interaction with those cultures through Islamic ties. Bosnian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin. Until the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia, they were treated as a unitary Serbo-Croatian language, and that term is still used in English to subsume the common base (vocabulary, grammar and syntax) of what are today officially four national standards, although this term is controversial for native speakers, and paraphrases such as “Serbo-Croat-Bosnian” (SCB) or “Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian” (BCS) are therefore sometimes used instead, especially in diplomatic circles. Several linguists and socio-political advocates claim Bosnian to be a standard language not only of the Bosniaks, but of all of Bosnia and Herzegovina, drawing on historical use of the name “Bosnian”.